Anal Cancer

Anal Cancer

anal-cancer

This is the terminal part of gut with the most sensitive responsibility of letting excreta out. Most of the toxic chemicals, urea, uric acid, Nitrogen and some irritation which in turn leads to sort of cell deviations, mass formations, cysts, fistulas and varicosities, etc. Anal cancer by nature looks similar to rectal cancer or colorectal cancer. However, the differences are in causes, risk factors, clinical progression, grading and treatments.

Majority of the anal cancer patients are in the age of 60 years plus, and 60% of them are women. People who practice anal intercourse, sexual malpractices and substance abuse are at risk as well. According to the cytological details (cell details) of anal cancer, it is made typically of a squamous cell carcinoma. However other uncommon types of anal cancers are carcinoma including adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, melanoma and sarcoma.

 

Some of the symptoms of anal cancer

  1. Profuse Rectal bleeding when going to toilet and feels pain in the anal area.
  2. A feeling of lumpiness and mass around the anus, but are different from piles and cysts!
  3. Mucoid and jelly discharge from the anus.
  4. A sensation of itching around anus.
  5. Tape like stools, diarrhea and sometimes constipation associated with vomiting.
  6. In case of women, possible experience of lower back pain.

What are the causes of anal cancer?

Causes can be the potential factors or can be actual factors, but the sexual behaviors, diet and lifestyle have been directly related to the diagnosis of anal cancer. Some of the common factors are explained as follows:


  • Multi sexual partners: Because intercourse with strangers, specially anal sex is a concern due to HPV spread.
  • Infectious episodes from HPV (human papiloma virus): Majority (80%) of the anal cancer cases are being infected from HPV.
  • Upward and lateral radiation of Other cancers: this is especially true in case of women with vaginal or cervical cancers in the past or in progress. If men had an episode of penile cancer, then it can be an option for new anal cancer.
  • Age factor: Men or women ageing 60 and above can be at higher risk.
  • A weak immune system: People with a fragile immune system, people suffering from HIV/AIDS and those who undergo prolonged treatments for certain diseases are at higher risk.
  • Smoking: Smoking could act as a carcinogenic generator all over the body.
  • Frequent surgeries and instrumentation on bowel: Irritable bowel disease, hemorrhoids and inflammation resulting from benign anal lesions can contribute to anal cancer.
  • Untreated long term constipation: Chronic constipation could be a reason to lead anal cancer.

How to prevent and what can it be done if one has anal cancer?

Be cautious about various portals of HPV infection; be safe when having sex with a stranger, strictly NO to multi sexual partners and absolute abstinence from smoking. In case of anal cancer, your doctor may opt for resection of small tumor and some surrounding tissue along with abdomino-perineal resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.