Bladder cancer is the 4th leading cancer in men and the 9th in women. It can persist as primary or metastasis type of cancer from nephrons and other urinary parts. The bladder is a muscular sheath that is very thin and hollow in nature as it is a natural urosac bag in human beings. The bladder anatomically comprises of an inner transitional layer with epithelial cells called urothelium, a middle muscular layer, and the outer layer that is composed of fibrous tissues.
One needs to be cautious with urinary incontinence, bloody urine, pain, obstruction, and feeling of pressure while passing urine. You also need to be alert if you have had a prior history of cancer anywhere in the renal system because it can easily spread.
If you're a known smoker and alcoholic, then you need to be careful. As well, lethal and illicit intake of sedatives and certain forms of drugs and steroidal treatment for a long period of time can be dangerous.
If you are an employee in a mining industry, brick factory, dye, rubber, cigarettes, chemical, metals, or jute industries, there are chances of generating carcinogens.
Prior personal history of bladder cancer could create further risk for further attacks.
Arsenic compounds found in drinking water could be a factor for bladder cancer. Checking the drinking water for a laboratory certificate is recommended.
If you have a family history of bladder cancer, the chance of a new diagnosis of bladder cancer is increased by 50%.
Many people who get bladder cancer have none of these risk factors, and many people who have these risk factors don’t develop the disease, thus one needs to be vigilant.
Laxing of the lower abdomen due to a mass
Irritation and frequent infections
A severe pain on the affected side that comes and goes
An abdominal mass
Blood in the urine, technically called Hematuria, with reddish urination can be a dangerous sign
Anemia due to the death of normal blood cells associated with sudden weight loss
Fever with chills and fatigue, poor general health and well-being could be a sign,
An urge to pass urine but failing to pass on attempt because of obstruction.
If the bladder scrape is suggestive of abnormal cells, then one needs to follow it promptly and accordingly at the beginning as it can spread to other parts of the body. The cells of a tutor are graded 1, 2, 3, or 4. The higher the grade, the faster cancer cells are expected to grow. Staging and grading are necessary in order to know whether the tumor has invaded the deepest muscle layer of the bladder, or if it has just invaded nearby tissues, or if it has spread to other systems beside the urinary system. All these can be the best indicators of what sort of treatments may work the best.
Treatment options depend on stage, grade, location, whether the tumor has spread to other parts of the body, age of the patient as well as the general health of the patient. A multidisciplinary team approach is used with an anesthetist, oncologist, rehabilitation specialist, urologist and radiologist working together to diagnose and recommend appropriate treatment. Transurethral resection (TUR) is done by guided endoscopy to remove the affected part. Open surgery is usually done in stage 3 and 4.
People with early stages of bladder cancer can receive a treatment called biological therapy, where treatment is a BCG solution which is a liquid containing weakened bacteria in order to increase the immune system.