Carcinoid cancer is one of the rarest form of cancer which is composed of neuroendocrine factors with multiple metastasis points in the body. This cancer is often found during the advanced stages as it tends to hide its symptoms. Usually it involves with metastasis and affecting one or more organs. The embryonic origin has 3 distinct faces for carcinoid tumors Foregut carcinoid tumors may originate from arises in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach. Midgut carcinoid tumors are in the small intestine, appendix, and large bowel, and finally the hindgut carcinoid tumors that will arise at the distal colon or rectum. When it comes to carcinoid syndrome, the combination of symptoms are caused by those hormones released by the tumors into the blood stream. The most common hormones released are serotonin, histamine, and bradykinin which leads to such symptoms as flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, wheezing due to bronchospasm (airway narrowing), and valvular heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of carcinoid tumors vary greatly and depend on the location and size of the tumor and the presence of metastases. Findings will range from no tumor to full symptoms of carcinoid syndrome as following:
Treatment is a multi disciplinary approach with a doctor, neurosurgeon, nurse, etc. Some of the options are: