Lymphoma is a characteristic manifestation of abnormality in the T lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. This is a type of cancer that begins in immune system. In general, it occurs when lymphocytes are multiplying and growing at an abnormal pace. These abnormal lymphocytes stagnates in and around the lymph nodes such as the spleen or tonsils which eventually turn into a tumor. It just takes one's health and energy away because these tumor cells grow and invade surrounding tissues and organs for their oxygen and nutritional needs, etc.A lymph node can be intra nodal or extra nodal. An extra nodal lymph node can go beyond the limits of lymph node and reach lungs, vascular system and multiple organs of our body.
Though there are several factors predisposing and causing lymphomas, scientists still do not know the exact cause due to the lack of proper evidence. Some of the risk and causative factors are described below.
Hereditary: Gene mutations and familial tendencies may contribute to this lymphoma. Exposure to Carcinogens: These can be drugs, irritants, exposure to certain pesticides and herbicides, dyes, colors where benzene content is a major risk for lymphoma.
Age factor: Victims usually are in range of ages 16-34, and 55 years and older.
Other factors: Prenatal factors like poor nutrition during pregnancy, poor life style, vitamin deficiencies especially contribute to this.
Treatment is entirely based upon the staging and grading, whether it is intra nodal or extra nodal, age of the person and the degree of metastasis, etc. The choice
can be chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Symptomatic management and the ultimate choice is the surgery. Most of the time, combination of therapies are ideal.
Adverse effects of chemotherapy needs to be watched carefully. Both short term and long term effects have to be observed. Some short-term effects are like hair loss, skin discoloration, allergic reactions like nausea and vomiting. Long term effects are organ failure such as renal failure.
Advanced therapies: Radio isotopes can be directly implanted under nodes to kill those abnormal cells to prevent systemic effects.