Naso-Pharyngeal Cancer

Naso-Pharyngeal Cancer

Nasopharyngeal-cancer

Nasopharynx is the richest Mucoid and capillary bed along with ciliary tissues as they keep moving by the breath-in and breath-out. Nose and the pharynx are the close organs that form a transitional junction to move the air, certain secretions, and they function by filtering the foreign materials as well. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is one of the rare forms of tumor arising from the epithelial layers of the nasopharynx. 1% of all childhood malignancies can be nasopharyngeal cancers.

Nasopharyngeal cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells of nasopharynx. It is going to really trouble the oxygenation of entire body due to its blockage at respiratory tract by a huge mass called Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Epidemiologically speaking, the incidence is low except in case of Southeast Asia, because at least 40 new cases per 100,000 people has been diagnosed on an average in Southeast Asia. Males are more riskier than females probably due to smoking and lifestyle factors. Differential diagnosis can be Nasal Polyps, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Rhabdomyosarcoma.


Causes of nasopharyngeal cancer

  1. An infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely related to Nasopharyngeal carcinoma,

  2. Genetic tendency is seen in certain families,

  3. HPV infection with poor oral hygiene,

  4. Smoking in case of adults,

  5. Mutation of genes and DNA could also add strength to this cancer.


Symptoms of nasopharyngeal cancer

  1. One may feel blurred or double vision (diplopia) due to optic pressure,

  2. Often feels difficulty in speaking as well as voice hoarseness,

  3. Frequently one may get ear infections without a known cause,

  4. A paralytic feeling or pain over the face with numbness,

  5. Trismus, pain, otitis media, and nasal regurgitation,

  6. Headaches and sensorial disturbance,

  7. If the obstructions are large, then they may produce nasal bleeding,

  8. Loss of hearing, tinnitus (ringing sound in the ears),

  9. painless lump in neck or nose,

  10. Frequent infections and soaring of throat.

How to treat nasopharyngeal cancers?

Deep relaxation techniques like yoga and meditation are good. Breathing tract can be cleared regularly by breathing exercise. Biofeedback, and guided imagery will alleviate the anxiety hidden in the patient. Many herbal remedies are nowadays available for this type of cancer.

Standard therapies

There are 3 standard therapeutic modes as explained below.

Radiation therapy

  1. Where marking is done after an imaging. Therapist then decides the frequency of rays to be passed on,

  2. Usually high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation are used to kill or prohibit the growth,

  3. Internal radiation therapy is also used by depositing a source of radiation under the mass. Patient will be instructed to take plenty of fluids, and on time follow ups. Any possible complications also need to be informed.

Chemotherapy

Systemic anti-cancer drugs to kill the cells can be used so effectively. Patient needs to be cautious when receiving the therapy.

Surgery

Radio isotopes can be directly implanted under nodes to kill those abnormal cells to prevent systemic effects.

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy

It is a 3-dimensional radiation therapy used through computer-generated images to show the size and shape of the tumor.